In Christian iconography, Christ Pantocrator (Greek: Χριστὸς Παντοκράτωρ) is a selected depiction of Christ. Pantocrator or Pantokrator, usually translated as “Almighty” or “all-powerful”, is derived from definitely one in every of many names of God in Judaism.
Typically, the title of Christ is written on all sides of the halo, as IC and XC. Christ’s fingers are depicted in a pose that represents the letters IC, X and C, thereby making the Christogram ICXC (for “Jesus Christ”). The IC consists of the Greek characters iota (Ι) and lunate sigma (C; as an alternative of Σ, ς)—the first and remaining letters of ‘Jesus’ in Greek (Ἰησοῦς); in XC the letters are chi (Χ) and as soon as extra the lunate sigma—the first and remaining letters of ‘Christ’ in Greek (Χριστός).
The icon, traditionally half-length when in a semi-dome, which turned adopted for panel icons moreover, depicts Christ completely frontal with a significantly melancholy and stern side, with the right hand raised in blessing or, throughout the early encaustic panel at Saint Catherine’s Monastery, the usual rhetorical gesture that represents instructing. The left hand holds a closed information with a richly adorned cowl that features the Cross, representing the Gospels. An icon the place Christ has an open information is known as “Christ the Trainer”, a variant of the Pantocrator. Christ is bearded, his brown hair centrally parted, and his head is surrounded by a halo. The icon usually has a gold ground similar to the gilded grounds of Byzantine mosaics.
The oldest recognized surviving occasion of the icon of Christ Pantocrator was painted in encaustic on panel throughout the sixth or seventh century, and survived the interval of destruction of images all through the Iconoclastic disputes that twice racked the Japanese church, 726 to 787 and 814 to 842. It was preserved in Saint Catherine’s Monastery, throughout the distant desert of the Sinai. The gessoed panel, finely painted using a wax medium on a picket panel, had been coarsely overpainted throughout the face and arms at some time throughout the thirteenth century. When the overpainting was cleaned in 1962, the standard image was revealed to be a extremely high-quality icon, possibly produced in Constantinople.
The image of Christ Pantocrator was one in every of many first footage of Christ developed throughout the Early Christian Church and stays a central icon of the Japanese Orthodox Church. Within the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testomony in his left hand and makes the gesture of instructing or of blessing collectively together with his correct.
The standard Western Christ in Majesty is a full-length icon. Within the early Center Ages, it usually launched Christ in a mandorla or totally different geometric physique, surrounded by the 4 Evangelists or their symbols.
The icon of Christ Pantokrator is probably going one of many commonest spiritual footage of Orthodox Christianity. Typically speaking, in Medieval jap roman church paintings and construction, an iconic mosaic or fresco of Christ Pantokrator occupies the home throughout the central dome of the church, throughout the half-dome of the apse, or on the nave vault. Some college students (Latourette 1975: 572) ponder the Pantocrator a Christian adaptation of images of Zeus, paying homage to the good statue of Zeus enthroned at Olympia. The expansion of the earliest ranges of the icon from Roman Imperial imagery is less complicated to trace.
One other, additional literal translation is “Ruler of All” or, a lot much less really, “Sustainer of the World”. On this understanding, Pantokrator is a compound phrase original from the Greek for “all” and the verb which means “To perform one factor” or “to take care of one factor” (κρατεῖν, kratein). This translation speaks additional to God’s exact vitality; i.e., God does all of the issues (versus God can do all of the issues).
The most typical translation of Pantocrator is “Almighty” or “Omnipotent”. On this understanding, Pantokrator is a compound phrase original from the Greek phrases πᾶς, pas (GEN παντός pantos), i.e. “all” and κράτος, kratos, i.e. “energy”, “might”, “vitality”. That is often understood by means of potential vitality; i.e., capability to do one thing, omnipotence.
When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek as a result of the Septuagint, Pantokrator was used every for YHWH Sabaoth “Lord of Hosts” and for El Shaddai “God Almighty”. Within the New Testomony, Pantokrator is used as quickly as by Paul (2 Cor 6:18) and 9 cases throughout the E-book of Revelation: 1:8, 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7, 16:14, 19:6, 19:15, and 21:22. The references to God the Father and God the Son in Revelation are at cases interchangeable, nonetheless Pantokrator appears to be reserved for the Father in addition to, perhaps, in 1:8.
The Pantokrator, largely an Japanese Orthodox or Japanese Catholic theological conception, is way much less frequent beneath that title in Western (Roman) Catholicism and largely unknown to most Protestants. Within the West the equal image in paintings is known as Christ in Majesty, which developed a reasonably completely totally different iconography. Christ Pantocrator has come to counsel Christ as a light-weight nonetheless stern, all-powerful determine of humanity.